Mathematics function.
   Practice section.
 
   Formula calculation, Σ(sum), Calculus
   c.f. Sample Program: "smp_diff.bas"
 
   ■ Formula calculation.
 
   Processing of math formula itself in programming languages,
    getting addition result of "x+4" and "2x+1" → ["3x+5"]
    it is now possible with this 'Basic'.
 
   Let's try to do it actually.
   f$=fcal("x+4","2x+1","add")
   print f$
   3*x+5
 
   A formula is passed by string, and a value also return by string.
   To be used "add" here, but it can also use "sub"(subtraction) and "mult"(multiplication).
 
   The formula obtained here can be made to calculate actually.
   First, to substitute the desired value for x.
   x=4
   Next, to make to calculate the formula using 'calc()' function.
   print calc("3*x+5")
    17
   The calculation value of the formula with 'x=4' could be acquired.


 


   ■ Σ: Calculation of sum
    4
    Σ  (2x+1)
   x=1
   It is substitute '1 to 4: increasing' for 'formula x',
    and findding the value that all the results were totaled.
 
   The description in 'Basic' function will be like follow.
   print sigma("2x+1",1,4)
    24
   Calculation of sum by Σ, result 24 was obtained.
 
   'Basic' general functions [sin(), cos(), etc]
    these can be included into the formula of Σ, and it is possible to calculate.



 


   ■ Differential and Integral
 
   □ differential
   Differential coefficient of 'x^2' is slope of the tangent of the parabola.
    f'(x)=lim  f(x+h)-f(x)
            h→0       /h
   The derivative function which differentiated 'x^n' will be this.
   n*x^(n-1)
 
   Let's differentiate the formula using 'Basic' function actually.
   To differentiate the formula "x^2+2*x+1".
   f$=deriv$("x^2+2*x+1")
   print f$
   2*x+2
   The derivative function was obtained.


 


   □ differential coefficient
   The next, let's actually assign a value for 'x', and calculate differential coefficient.
   print diff("x^2+2*x+1",4)
    10
   The differential coefficient '10' was obtained.
   This is the slope of tangent at 'x=4'.


 


   □ Integral
   Inverse operation performs of Differential is Integral.
   Let's integrate the previous derivative function.
   print intgr$("2*x+2")
   x^2+2*x
   The primitive function without the integral constant 'C' was obtained.


 


   □ Definite integral
   Next, let's find Definite integral which specified the section of 'x'.
     b
    ∫  f(x)  dx
     a
   In mathematical description, it is like this.
 
   Definite integral in formula 'x^2' become an area of part enclosed
    between x-axis and parabola within specified section.
 
   To find the definite integral of [a=1,b=4 f(x)=x^2+3] with 'Basic' function,
    it describe like this.
   s=dint("x^2+3",1,4)
   print s
    29.999999999999996
   The value of definite integral was obtained.
 
   Although the explanation about Differential/Integral/Σ is to here,
    the others (follows) can be used.
    (n-th root,prime number,permutation,combination,greatest common divisor,least common multiple)


 












  ■ Mathematical function reference.


  GCD


  [Features]  To find solution of greatest common divisor.

  [Format]  GCD(n1,n2)

  [e.g.]
     print gcd(30,42)
      6
     

 

  LCM


  [Features]  To find solution of least common multiple.

  [Format]  LCM(n1,n2)

  [e.g.]
     print lcm(30,42)
      210


 

  PRIME


  [Features]  To return the first prime number on and after a specified number.

  [Format]  PRIME(n)

  [Explanation]
     When n is a prime number, n is returned,
     so it can also use for distinction of whether n is prime number.
     
  [e.g.]
     print prime(12)
      13


  ROOT


  [Features]  To find the n-th root of x.

  [Format]  ROOT(n,x)

  [Explanation]
     This is an approximation.
     n√x (n is dimensions number, the upper left mini symbol, not multiplication)
     A number that is multiplied by 'n' times to became 'x'.
     SQR is only the square, it can find n-th root of three or more dimensions.

  [e.g.]
     r=root(3,100)
     print r
      4.6415889136718755
     print r^3
      100.00000517446294


 

  FAC


  [Features]  The factorial of n is returned.

  [Format]  FAC(n)

  [Explanation]
     (The product of all the integers from 1 to n)
     The case of 'fac(5)', it will be 1*2*3*+4*5=120.

  [e.g.]
     print fac(5)
      120


 

  PERM


  [Features]  To return number of cases of permutation of mathematics.

  [Format]  PERM(n,r)

  [Explanation]
     It is calculation represented by 'nPr'.
     The total number of branches that take 'r' pieces out
      from different 'n' pieces, and put in order.
     The case of '6P3', it will be 6*5*4=120.

  [e.g.]
     print perm(6,3)
      120


 

  COMB


  [Features]  To return number of cases of combination of mathematics.

  [Format]  COMB(n,r)

  [Explanation]
     It is calculation represented by 'nCr'.
     The total pattern number that select 'r' pieces from different 'n' pieces.
     This value is obtained by PERM(n,r)/FAC(r).

  [e.g.]
     print comb(5,3)
      10


 

  SIGMA


  [Features]  The sum of number sequence is calculated.(mathematics Σ)

  [Format]  SIGMA(n1,n2)

  [Explanation]
      4
      Σ  (x+1)    (in this case n1=1,n2=4)
     x=1
     The case 'sigma("x+1",1,4)' then,
      to substitute '1 to 4: increasing' for 'formula x',
      and the value adding all the results is returned.
     This 'formula of Σ' can be calculated including general functions as sin(),cos(),etc.

     It also have the function to make various settings.
     Form2: sigma("int"|"even"|"odd")
     Although increment is usually 1,(default a=sigma("int"))
     it can specify the following.
     add only when even: a=sigma("even")
     add only when odd : a=sigma("odd")

     And although the target variable is 'x' by default,
      it can change into any variables by 'a=sigma("v:y")'.
     Form2: sigma("v:1chaVariableName")
     (to describe 1character Variable-Name next to "v:)
     The variable specified here is also applied to target variable of
      differential/Integration/fcal function.

  [e.g.]
     print sigma("2*x^2+1",1,4)
      64
     a=sigma("v:y")
     print sigma("2*y^2+1",1,4)
      64
     a=sigma("odd"):a=sigma("v:x")
     print sigma("2*x^2+1",1,4)
      22


  DERIV$


  [Features]  The given formula is differentiated and it is made a Derivative function.

  [Format]  DERIV$(formula-string)

  [Explanation]
     The result is returned by the formula of a character string.
     f'(x)=lim  f(x+h)-f(x)
             h→0      /h
     formula "x^n" then, Derivative function of result will be "n*x^(n-1)"

  [e.g.]
     print deriv$("x^2+2*x+1")
     2*x+2


 

  DIFF


  [Features]  To find solution of Differential coefficient.

  [Format]  DIFF(formula-string,n)

  [Explanation]
     The formula is made into Derivative function,
      and the value which substituted 'n' for 'x' is acquired.
     Differential coefficient will be the slope of a tangent at the time of the formula'x=n'.

  [e.g.]
     print diff("x^2+2*x+1",4)
      10


  INTGR$


  [Features]  The given formula is integrated and it is made a Primitive function.

  [Format]  INTGR$(formula-string)

  [Explanation]
     ∫   f(x) dx    [f(x) is "2*x+2" in example case]
     It is returned by the formula of a character string.
     Integration is the inverse operation of differentiation.
     formula "a*x^n" then, the result formula of integration will be "a/(n+1)*x^(n+1)"
     The result is the one without the integral constant 'C'.

  [e.g.]
     print intgr$("2*x+2")
     x^2+2*x
     print intgr$("x^2+5*x")
     (1/3)*x^3+(5/2)*x^2


  DINT


  [Features]  To find solution of Definite integral.

  [Format]  DINT(formula-string,n1,n2)

  [Explanation]
     4
    ∫  f(x) dx     [f(x) is "2*x+2" in example case]
     1
     The formula is made into Primitive function F(x),
      and substitute 'x' for 'n1' and 'n2',
      and the value F(n2)-F(n1) is acquired.
     When formula is 'x^2', Definite integral result become an area of part
      enclosed between x-axis and parabola of formula, range n1<=x<=n2.

  [e.g.]
     print dint("2*x+2",1,4)
      21


  FCAL


  [Features]  To calculate formula 1 and 2 for 'x'(default) given by string, and return the result as string.

  [Format]  FCAL(formula-string1,formula-string2,"add"|"sub"|"mult")

  [Explanation]
     To specify "add" or "sub"(subtraction) or "mult"(multiplication) with 3rd parameter.
     It is possible to calculate formula whose coefficient is integer.
     The formula including fractions are not supported at the moment.

  [e.g.]
     print fcal("x+3","2*x+2","add")
     3*x+5
     print fcal("x^2+1","2x-2","mult")
     2*x^3-2*x^2+2*x-2


 



    In this page, to deal with the mathematics function of school textbook.
    Mainly, Differential, Integral and Calculation of sum Σ.
    
    Practical usage is described at lower part of the reference.
    The formula about 'x' are dealt with by character string.
    So formula level operations in string are possible.
    
    About omission of "*"
    3x^2+4x+1 …(1)
    3*x^2+4*x+1 …(2)
    
    In mathematics, it is usually written like -(1).
    The formula recognized by 'Basic' need '*'(multiplication)
     in front of the variable'x' without omission like -(2).
    
    The formula to give to function, it is possible to use both (1) and (2).
    ((1) is converted to (2) internally, and processed)
    The formula(string) returned by function is always returned in format-(2).
    
    The formula(string) returned by format-(2),
    it is, -by assigning a numerical value for 'x',
    it can calculate by 'calc()' as it is, and able to get the value.
    
    e.g.
    f$=fcal("x+3","2*x+2","add") :'2-formulas are added and result'3*x+5' enter to 'f$'
    x=2 :'substitute 2 for x
    print calc(f$) :'calculate '3*x+5' with assigned value
     11 :'result'11' is displayed
    
    And, 'x'-coefficient of formula's calculation result,
     it may become irrational number which cannot divide,
     then, the result output of formula will be returned by not [a decimal]
     but [fraction enclosed by parentheses], like a "(1/3)*x^3+(5/2)*x^2".
    
    e.g. in the case of integral calculation
     print intgr$("x^2+5*x")
     (1/3)*x^3+(5/2)*x^2